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Pregnant Mares and Foaling


Pregnancy Diagnosis
  • 15-18 days after her last breeding date, ultrasound your mare to confirm pregnancy and check for twins.

  • 25-35 days after her last breeding date, ultrasound her again to check for fetal heartbeat or possible fetal loss (absorption).


  • 5 months – Pneumabort K booster AFTER confirming pregnancy one more time via rectal palpation. (If the mare has not been previously vaccinated with Pneumabort K, start at 3 months.)

  • 7 months – Pneumabort K

  • 9 months – Pneumabort K10 months

  • 10 Months- (4-6 weeks before foaling) – Pre-foaling vaccinations, consisting of all annual vaccinations.



Nutritional demands for pregnant mares do not increase until the last trimester of pregnancy. Nutritional and water requirements increase significantly with lactation.



Continue to deworm your mare every 8 weeks or keep her on a daily dewormer throughout gestation.

We do not recommend the use of Quest during pregnancy.

If not on a daily dewormer such as Strongid C2X , your mare should be dewormed the day of foaling, to prevent the transfer of threadworms to the foal through the mare’s milk.







  • Allow the mare approximately 4 weeks to acclimate to her designated foaling area.

  • Deworm the mare the day of foaling if she is not on a daily dewormer.

  • Monitor mare closely when foaling begins. If the mare appears to be having problems, call our office for assistance.

  • Allow the umbilical cord to rupture on its own. Do Not cut the umbilical cord. It is important for the mare to lie quietly for 10 or 15 minutes after foaling to allow the transfer of cord blood to reach the baby.Call our office if the placenta does not pass within 3 hours. Save the placenta for the veterinarian to examine during the foal check.

  • Call our office if the foal has not passed its meconium within 3 hours .

  • Foal should rise and attempt to nurse within 2 hours.

  • Check foal's IgG levels between 8 and 18 hours post-foaling (to insure it has received adequate colostrum from the mare.)

  • Dip navel with a disinfectant such as iodine.

  • Once the mare has foaled, call our office to let us know so we can schedule the Postpartum Exam or Foal Check.This exam should be done 8-18 hours after foaling and is very important. If your mare foals during the night, as so many do, call our office at that time and just leave a message for the morning so we can get your foal check scheduled



Foal Check…..Importance of a Postpartum Exam


In order to help ensure a healthy mare and foal, after delivery it is important to be able to identify any early signs of neonatal disease. This is best accomplished by having a routine veterinary evaluation of the newborn foal and the mare within 8-18 hours after birth. This exam includes a careful observation and physical examination of the mare, foal and placenta.

The mare is examined for adequate colostrum production, damage to the reproductive tract and any early indication of internal bleeding, colic, etc. The foal is further assessed for maturity, congenital defects and early signs of neonatal sepsis. The foal’s blood is then checked for adequate transfer of maternal immunity or IgG. If inadequate passive transfer occurs, the newborn foal has little to no defense against infection, which often results in death. Early detection allows oral administration of colostrum with in an optimal window of time, less than 18 hours after birth. After that time, IV administration of antibodies is required, costing more and increasing the likelihood of neonatal sepsis occurring. The earlier a problem is identified, the better the outcome, so even an apparently healthy foal should be examined and have its blood antibody levels tested.

An exam may need to be performed earlier than 8 hours if there is a problem. The 1-2-3 rule can help you assess if your foal and mare are progressing normally. A healthy foal should stand within 1 hour, start nursing within 2 hours and pass the meconium (first feces) within 3 hours. Any other abnormalities such as poor milk production, foal rejection, excessive bleeding from the vulva or umbilicus, depression, colic, or a history of failure of passive transfer should be IMMEDIATELY brought to our attention. Please do not hesitate to call our office if you have any concerns.



  • Call our office immediately to schedule a foal check for 8-18 hours after foaling.

  • Save the placenta (afterbirth).

  • Monitor the 1-2-3 rule.

  • Call immediately if any problems arise.

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